Roman Eastern Empire
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The Roman Eastern Empire was the counterpart of the Western Roman Empire from the 3rd century AD, during the periods in which the Empire was split, until the end of the Western Empire in 476, when the Imperial title over the West was resumed by the Eastern Emperor. The Eastern Emperors made significant reconquests of Western lands, but the Empire was never truly restored, and as such, it gradually saw a decline into the medieval period. The Eastern Empire became increasingly Hellenized, and Greek eventually replaced Latin as the official language, while the culture remained distinctly eastern, as opposed to the more Latin-oriented culture and language of the Romans Western Empire.
In terms of religion, the Eastern Empire followed an eastern flavour of Christianity which was less accepting of the Pope's primacy over the Church. This eventually became officially distinct from Catholicism much later, but there was no official split during antiquity. With the passing of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman Eastern Empire became the sole hope of a Roman restoration, and it continued the Roman legacy for almost an entire millennium later.